Fetomaternal outcome and determinants of term premature rupture of membrane: Case control study in SPHMMC, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
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Background: Term Premature Rupture of Membranes (PROM) is a common obstetric event and it is defined as rupture of the membranes prior to the onset of labour at or beyond 37 weeks gestation. PROM can cause maternal complications like chorioamnionitis, increased operative procedures, puerperal sepsis and neonatal morbidity and mortality. The immediate risks of rupture of membranes include cord prolapse, cord compression and placental abruption where as delayed risks include maternal and neonatal infection.
Objectives: This study aimed to find out the fetomaternal outcome and determinants of term premature rupture of membrane at SPHMMC.
Methods: The study used institution based unmatched case control study which was conducted on women who gave birth in SPHMMC during the study period which was from October 2019 to January 2020. Chi-square test and Odds ratio was used to determine factors associated with development of term PROM.
Results: The study included a total of 246 study participants, 82 patients with PROM and 162 controls. Among the study participants the commonest complications encountered by women who presented with PROM was puerperal sepsis (2.4 %), wound infection (2.4 %) and anemia/PPH (2.4 %). 68.3 % of the PROM cases presented after 12 hours of membrane rupture. About 8.5 % of neonates among cases and 1.8% among controls had developed complications which include hypoglycemia, early onset neonatal sepsis and respiratory distress.History of PROM (p-value 0.00), history of abnormal vaginal discharge (p-value 0.00) and sex of the neonates (p-value 0.01) were found to have significant association with development of PROM.Conclusion: The composite out come was favorable in 91.5 % of women and neonates among cases and in 98.8% of controls .Previous history of PROM, history of abnormal vaginal discharge and male fetal sex had significant association with development of PROM.